Plural words ending in -au in Welsh, -es in Cornish and -ed in Breton tend to end in -ow in Cumbric. Also, the equivalent of the Cornish and Breton k is c in Cumbric and Welsh.
Plural words ending in -edd in Welsh, -edh in Cornish and -ez in Breton tend to end in -ed in Cumbric.
Non-plural words ending in -ydd in Welsh, -ydh or -edh in Cornish and -ez in Breton tend to end in -id in Cumbric.
Cornish: Menydh or Menedh
Plural words ending in a single -d in Welsh and -t in Breton tend to also end in -d in Cumbric.
Words ending in -ys in Welsh, -ys in Cornish and -ez in Breton tend to end in -is in Cumbric.
Singular words with -ae- or -oe- in Welsh tend to instead have -ai- in Cumbric.
Welsh: Caer, Blaen, Moel
Cumbric: Cair, Blain, Mail
Cumbric, like Cornish and Breton, does not have the Welsh letter ll.
Cumbric, unlike Welsh, does not use a circumflex (to bach).
The letter w in Welsh is u in Cumbric.
1. Welsh Dictionary
2. Cornish Dictionary
3. Cornish Glossary
4. French Wiktionary (Search for a Welsh word to find the Breton version)
The Old North or Yr Hen Ogledd (Cumbric territory) consisted of many kingdoms. The major kingdoms included: Elmet (in what is now western Yorkshire), Gododdin (in what is now Lothian and the Scottish Borders), Rheged (in what is now Galloway), and the kingdom of Strathclyde2.
The map shows the major kingdoms in the 6th and 7th century AD2,3.
The Celts arrived in Britain in the 6th Century BC4,5,6. Cumbric split from Common Brythonic (along with Welsh, Cornish and possibly Pictish) by the 6th Century AD due to pressure from Germanic tribes7,8. By 560 AD, Bernicia and Deira were under Germanic control. In 617 AD, Bernicia and Deira were merged to form the kingdom of Northumbria9.
The Cumbric bard Aneirin: his poetry is recorded in Welsh in Llyfr Aneirin (Book of Aneirin), save for the Cumbric poem "Peis Dinogad" which was written in the margins of the poem "Y Gododdin."1,11
William Wallace: The knight was born in Elderslie, Renfrewshire12, which was until 1018 part of the kingdom of Strathclyde13. The surname "Wallace" is related to the Gaelic for Welshman or Briton (Uallas), which indicates that William Wallace was either Welsh or Cumbric.14
1. Koch, J. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia, Volumes 1-5. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
2. Wallace, D. (1999). The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
3. Earlybritishkingdoms.com. (2003). EBK: Map of Britain in AD 500. [online] Available at: http://www.earlybritishkingdoms .com/maps/500 _kingdoms.html [Accessed 25 Sep. 2018].
4. Thorold, D. and West, S. (2006). Roman Invaders and Settlers. London: Evans Brothers Limited.
5. Dougherty, M. (2015). Celts: The History and Legacy of One of the Oldest Cultures in Europe. London: Amber Books Ltd.
6. Multitree.org. (n.d.). MultiTree. [online] Available at: http://multitree.org/codes/ [Accessed 25 Sep. 2018].
7. Willis, D. (n.d.). Old and Middle Welsh. [online] People.ds.cam.ac.uk. Available at: http://people.ds.cam .ac.uk/ dwew2/old_and_middle _welsh.pdf [Accessed 14 Oct. 2018].
8. Echard, S., Rouse, R., Fay, J., Fulton, H. and Rector, G. (2017). The Encyclopedia of Medieval Literature in Britain. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
9. Hiley, R. (1872). A Compendium of European Geography and History. London: Longmans, Green and Company.
11. Ffynnon.org. (2018). Ffynnon Music - Celtic Music From Wales - Pais Dinogad (Dinogad's Smock). [online] Available at: http://ffynnon.org/music_celtic_05.php [Accessed 25 Sep. 2018].
12. Thesocietyofwilliamwallace.com. (n.d.). Sir William Wallace Of Elderslie. [online] Available at: http://www.thesocietyof williamwallace .com/williamwallace ofelderslie.htm [Accessed 25 Sep. 2018].
13. Fischer, S. (2004). A History of Language. London: Reaktion Books.
14. Davies, N. (2011). Vanished Kingdoms: The History of Half-Forgotten Europe. London: Penguin Books.
The Picts inhabited northern and eastern Scotland1.
The Picts are believed to have been ethnolinguistically Celtic2,3. In the 9th Century AD, Pictland merged with the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata to form the Kingdom of Alba.4,5. In 842 AD, Kenneth I mac Alpin, the king of Dál Riata, gained control of Pictland6.
Pictish Language and Elements
There are two prevailing theories about the Pictish language: 1. it is a sister language of Common Brythonic or 2. it branched off of Common Brythonic and is thus a sister language of Primitive Welsh, Cumbric and South-West Brythonic.3 Pictish became extinct in the 9th Century AD.4,5
Some Pictish elements include: aber (river mouth or confluence), pen, pol, tre, and pit7,8, pet5 or pett ("parcel of land")9.
Abercrombie: "confluence of rivers at a bend" / "mouth of the bendy river"10
Aberdeen: "mouth of the river Don"7
Aberdour: "mouth of the river Dour"7
Aberfeldy: "confluence of Peallaidh"7
Aberfoyle: Pictish aber and Gaelic poull, meaning "confluence of the pool"7
Aberlour: "confluence of the Lour burn"7
Abernethy: "mouth of the river Nethy"7
Applecross: Pictish aber and Gaelic Crosan, meaning "mouth of the river Crosan"7
Arbuthnott: Pictish aber and Gaelic Buadhnat, meaning confluence of the Buadhnat stream7
Kincardine: Gaelic cinn and Pictish carden, meaning "head of the copse"7
Pert: "a wood or copse"10
Fettercairn: Gaelic foithir and Pictish carden, meaning "slope by a thicket"11
Abernathey/Abernathy/Abernethy: "mouth of the river Nethy"10
Arbuthnot: Pictish aber and Gaelic Buadhnat, meaning confluence of the Buadhnat stream10
Peart: "a wood or copse"10
1. Hubbard, B. (2018). The Celts, Picts, Scoti and Romans. Oxford: Raintree.
2. Browne, J. (1834). History of the Highlands and of the Highland Clans. Glasgow: A. Fullarton & Co.
3. Wagner, P. (2002). Pictish Warrior AD 297-841. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
4. Steponavičius, A. (2006). Diachronic Linguistics and Etymology. Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku.
5. Koch, J. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia, Volumes 1-5. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, Inc.
6. Cannon, J. and Hargreaves, A. (2009). The Kings and Queens of Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
7. Mills, A. D. (2011). A Dictionary of British Place Names. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
8. (1931). Transactions and Proceedings of the Perthshire Society of Natural Science, 9-10.
9. McArthur, T., Lam-McArthur, J. and Fontaine, L. (2018). Oxford Companion to the English Language. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
10. Hanks, P. (2003). Dictionary of American Family Names. New York City: Oxford University Press.
11. Mills, A. D. (2003). A Dictionary of British Place Names. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.